A Practical Guide to Teaching Citizenship in the Secondary School (Routledge Teaching Guides)

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In Gujarat farmers have the choice of planting either peanuts, which are more profitable in wet years, or castor, which does better in drier conditions. The difference depends on the timing of the monsoon rains, which can arrive at any time between the beginning and the middle of June. Farmers, however, have to decide what seeds to sow in April or May. There is a local saying, at least a thousand years old, which claims that the monsoon starts 45 days after the flowering of a common tree, Cassia fistula.

Complete the following notes of the key points. Reading and Note-Making 25 7.

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Link the notes together to make a complete summary using conjunctions where necessary. Check the final text for factual accuracy. Indian scientists are checking ………… 8. The original text was about words.

However, it might be necessary to summarise still further. Using the same techniques, summarise the summary in about 20 words. Combining Sources Most essays require the writer to read more than one book or article. The differences between the ideas of different writers may be the focus of the essay. This unit examines ways of presenting such contrasting views.

According to Giallombardo , women alleviated the pains of imprisonment by developing kinship links with other inmates. Similarly Heffernan found that adaptation to prison was facilitated by the creation of a pseudo-family.

A Practical Guide to Teaching Physical Education in the Secondary School

Owen also notes that the female sub-culture is based on personal relationships with other women inmates. Fox states, for example, that the cooperative caring prison community that has embodied characterizations of female prisons has evolved into a more dangerous and competitive climate. New species have always evolved through natural selection by means of random genetic variation.

Early farmers used this natural variation to selectively breed wild animals, plants and even micro-organisms such as yogurt cultures and yeasts. They produced domesticated variants better suited to the needs of humans, long before the scientific basis for the process was understood. Combining genetic material from species that cannot breed naturally is an interference in areas which may be highly dangerous. The consequences of this kind of manipulation cannot be foreseen. It seems undeniable that these processes may lead to major benefits in food production and the environment.

There is no doubt, for example, that some medical advances may have saved millions of lives. However, this level of technology can contain a strong element of risk.

A Practical Guide to Teaching Citizenship in the Secondary School

Our ignorance of the long-term effects of releasing GM plants or even animals into the environment means that this step should only be taken after very careful consideration. On the other hand Source B considers that, although GM technology could bring considerable benefits in medicine and agriculture, it is quite different to traditional processes of selection. He believes that crossing the species barrier is a dangerous step and that there is insufficient knowledge of the long-term results of such developments.

The essay writer uses a mixture of direct quotes and summaries of arguments. It has been claimed that ………… 4. Read the sources and then complete the paragraph comparing their views.


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SOURCE C When countries begin to provide facilities for mass tourism, such as hotels and leisure complexes, there is an immediate demand for labour. Work is created for cleaners, waiters, gardeners and drivers on a scale which may significantly boost the local economy. Such work may provide opportunities to learn valuable new skills. For many, these semi-skilled jobs provide an attractive alternative to subsistence agriculture or fishing, while at the same time the tax revenues from their earnings increase the national income. Much of this work combines insecurity with long hours of work in poor conditions.

Moreover, the combination of wealthy tourists being served by exploited waitresses is likely to increase social tensions in these areas. Another risk is that natural or human disasters such as wars and earthquakes may drive visitors away without warning, leaving tens of thousands unemployed. The presence of easy-going, affluent visitors apparently encouraged the locals to learn new skills and open new businesses.

Despite this positive interpretation, many examples could be presented where the arrival of rich and idle tourists has been an encouragement for crime, prostitution and other less desirable aspects of the modern economy. Much seems to depend on the economic alternatives offered by the society, and of course the scale of tourist arrivals.

It has been argued that tourism can have a very positive social influence on a developing country.

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Writing stages 29 Planning a Text Outline planning was examined in Unit 2. Planning gives essays a coherent structure and, most importantly, helps to ensure that they answer the question set. Although all essays need planning, they are written in two different situations: as coursework, and in exams.

Clearly, under the time pressure of an exam, planning is more hurried, but also more critical. This unit looks at planning first in exams and then for coursework. In the case of essays written in exams, it is best to begin planning by analysing the title and then writing down any ideas that seem relevant.

This process is called brainstorming, and at first ideas are collected in any order. Read the title below and add more ideas to the list. Why is this, and will it continue to be so? Having assembled your ideas, it is then necessary to find a suitable framework for the essay. A structure may be suggested by the title of the essay. There are a number of common structures used in essay writing. Which would be most suitable for the title above? Complete the plan for the title in 1 using ideas from 1.

Decide which of the three frameworks in 2 would be most suitable for the following titles. Consider possible reasons. Study the title below and the ideas collected for the essay. Add to the list if possible. Then choose a suitable framework and complete the plan below. Compare the effects of advertising on TV with advertising in newspapers. What are the main differences?

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Are there any similarities? TV adverts more lively, dynamic newspaper adverts can be targeted at a special market, e. Choose one of the titles below and note at least six ideas that might be used in the essay. Then select a suitable framework and write a plan. The internet will replace the classroom. Writing Stages 31 Ideas Plan 7. In the case of longer essays, written as coursework, planning will normally be a two-stage process: a before reading: using the title to develop an outline structure b after reading: modifying the outline and adding detail Study the plan below.

Title: Analyse the role of the private sector in the modern English education system. Organising Paragraphs Paragraphs are the basic building blocks of texts. Well-organised paragraphs not only help readers understand the argument; they also help writers to structure their ideas effectively. Read the following paragraph. The way we use banks is currently changing.

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This is partly because of the introduction of new technology in the last ten years. The personal computer and the internet, for instance, allow customers to view their accounts at home and perform operations such as moving money between accounts. At the same time banks are being reorganised in ways that affect both customers and staff.

In the past five years over 3, bank branches have closed in Britain. The banks have discovered that staffing call centres is cheaper than running a branch network. The structure of the paragraph is: 1.

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A paragraph is a collection of sentences that deal with one subject. All paragraphs contain a topic sentence, which is often, but not always, the first. Other components vary according to the nature of the topic. Introductory paragraphs often contain definitions, and descriptive paragraphs include a lot of detail.

Other sentences give examples and offer reasons and restatements. Read and analyse the following paragraph. In recent years all British universities have adopted the semester system.