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The Washington had the aid of a naval fire control computer —in this case the Ford Instrument Company Mark 8 Range Keeper analog computer used to direct the fire from the battleship's guns, taking into account several factors such as the speed of the targeted ship, the time it takes for a projectile to travel, and air resistance to the shells fired at a target.
This gave the US Navy a major advantage in the Pacific War , as the Japanese did not develop radar or automated fire control to a comparable level although they did have complex mechanical ballistics computers, which had been in use since World War I. The next US Navy battleship class, the Iowa class , did not fall under Treaty weight restrictions and allowed for additional displacement. It also allowed the draft of the ships to be increased, meaning that the ships could be shortened lowering weight and the power reduced since a narrower beam reduces drag.
The Mark 7 had a greater maximum range over the Mark 6: During World War II, the Mark 7 guns were only used for shore bombardment in the Pacific, while the Mark 6 guns also saw ship-to-ship combat in both the Pacific and European theaters; this was attributed to the fact that ships mounting the Mark 7 batteries, the Iowa class , were commissioned later than the Mark 6-equipped North Carolina and South Dakota classes , so they missed the Naval Battles of Casablanca and the Guadalcanal , one of the few instances where the US Navy's fast battleships were deployed for ship-to-ship combat.
Most large scale naval battles involving the US Navy were fought by carrier-based aircraft in the Pacific. Hamamatsu Hamamatsu is a city located in western Shizuoka Prefecture , Japan. As of March 1, , the city had an estimated population of ,, making it the prefecture's largest city and a population density of persons per km2; the total area was 1, After the Meiji Restoration , Hamamatsu became a short-lived prefecture from to , after which it was united with Shizuoka Prefecture. May 1, Act City Hamamatsu opened.
October 1, Hamamatsu Museum of Musical Instruments opened. April 1, Hamamatsu is designated a core city by the central government. June 1, Hamamatsu City Fruit Park opened. January 1, Started separated collection of garbage in residential areas. April 1, Hamamatsu is designated as an Omnibus Town. April 1, Act City Musical School opened.
April 3, Shizuoka University of Art and Culture opened. Inasa District and Iwata District were both dissolved as a result of this merger. Therefore, there are no more villages left in Shizuoka Prefecture.
April 1, Hamamatsu became a city designated by government ordinance by the central government. Hamamatsu is kilometres southwest of Tokyo. The climate in southern Hamamatsu has a humid subtropical climate with cool to mild winters with little snowfall; the climate in northern Hamamatsu is much harsher because of foehn winds. Summer is hot with the highest temperature exceeds 35 degrees in the Tenryu-ku area, while it snows in winter. As of an unspecified year, 29, non-Japanese live in Hamamatsu.
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
As of the number of non-Japanese in Hamamatsu was 33,, by the number was about 30,; the population of Nikkei foreigners increased after a change in Japanese immigration law allowed them to work in Japan. Many foreigners work in the manufacturing sector, taking temporary jobs in Honda and Yamaha plants. Since the number of non-Japanese children in Hamamatsu increased. Natsuko Fukue of The Japan Times wrote in that many foreign children have difficulty integrating to society in Hamamatsu because "Japanese and foreign communities live separate from one another. Ship gun fire-control system Ship gun fire-control systems are fire-control systems to enable remote and automatic targeting of guns against surface ships and shore targets, with either optical or radar sighting.
Beginning with ships built in the s, GFCSs were integrated with missile fire-control systems and other ship sensors; the major components of a GFCS are a manned director, with or replaced by radar or television camera, a computer, stabilizing device or gyro, equipment in a plotting roomFor the USN, the most prevalent gunnery computer was the Ford Mark 1 the Mark 1A Fire Control Computer , an electro-mechanical analog ballistic computer that provided accurate firing solutions and could automatically control one or more gun mounts against stationary or moving targets on the surface or in the air.
Digital computers would not be adopted for this purpose by the US until the mids. Naval fire control resembles that of ground-based guns, but with no sharp distinction between direct and indirect fire, it is possible to control several same-type guns on a single platform while both the firing guns and the target are moving.
Though a ship rolls and pitches at a slower rate than a tank does, gyroscopic stabilization is desirable. Naval gun fire control involves three levels of complexity: Local control originated with primitive gun installations aimed by the individual gun crews; the director system of fire control was pioneered by British Royal Navy in All guns on a single ship were laid from a central position placed as high as possible above the bridge; the director became a design feature of battleships, with Japanese "Pagoda-style" masts designed to maximize the view of the director over long ranges.
A fire control officer who ranged the salvos transmitted angles to individual guns. Coordinated gunfire from a formation of ships at a single target was a focus of battleship fleet operations. An officer on the flagship would signal target information to other ships in the formation; this was necessary to exploit the tactical advantage when one fleet succeeded in crossing the others T, but the difficulty of distinguishing the splashes made walking the rounds in on the target more difficult.
Corrections can be made for surface wind velocity, firing ship roll and pitch, powder magazine temperature, drift of rifled projectiles, individual gun bore diameter adjusted for shot-to-shot enlargement, rate of change of range with additional modifications to the firing solution based upon the observation of preceding shots.
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More sophisticated fire control systems consider more of these factors rather than relying on simple correction of observed fall of shot. Differently colored dye markers were sometimes included with large shells so individual guns, or individual ships in formation, could distinguish their shell splashes during daylight. Early "computers" were people using numerical tables. Centralized naval fire control systems were first developed around the time of World War I. Local control had been used up until that time, remained in use on smaller warships and auxiliaries through World War II, it may still be used for machine guns aboard patrol craft.
Beginning with the British battleship HMS Dreadnought , large warships had at least six similar big guns, which facilitated central fire control. For the UK, their first central system was built before the Great War. At the heart was an analogue computer designed by Commander Frederic Charles Dreyer that calculated rate of change of range; the Dreyer Table was to be improved and served into the interwar period at which point it was superseded in new and reconstructed ships by the Admiralty Fire Control Table.
The use of Director-controlled firing together with the fire control computer moved the control of the gun laying from the individual turrets to a central position, although individual gun mounts and multi-gun turrets may retain a local control option for use when battle damage limits Director information transfer. Guns could be fired in planned salvos, with each gun giving a different trajectory.
Dispersion of shot caused by differences in individual guns, individual projectiles, powder ignition sequences, transient distortion of ship structure was undesirably large at typical naval engagement ranges. Directors high on the superstructure had a better view of the enemy than a turret mounted sight, the crew operating it were distant from the sound and shock of the guns.
Unmeasured and uncontrollable ballistic factors like high altitude temperature, barometric pressure, wind direction and velocity required final adjustment through observation of fall of shot. Visual range measurement was difficult prior to availability of radar; the British favoured coincidence rangefinders while the Germans and the U. Navy , stereoscopic type; the former were less a.
Displacing 72, long tons at full load, the vessels were the heaviest battleships constructed; the class carried the largest naval artillery fitted to a warship, nine millimetre naval guns, each capable of firing 1, kg shells over 42 km.
Two battleships of the class were completed, while a third was converted to an aircraft carrier during construction. Due to the threat of American submarines and aircraft carriers, both Yamato and Musashi spent the majority of their careers in naval bases at Brunei and Kure—deploying on several occasions in response to American raids on Japanese bases—before participating in the Battle of Leyte Gulf in October , as part of Admiral Kurita's Centre Force. Musashi was sunk during the battle by American carrier airplanes.
The design of the Yamato-class battleships was shaped by expansionist movements within the Japanese government, Japanese industrial power, the need for a fleet powerful enough to intimidate adversaries. After the end of the First World War , many navies—including those of the United States , the United Kingdom , Imperial Japan—continued and expanded construction programs that had begun during the conflict; the enormous costs associated with these programs pressured their government leaders to begin a disarmament conference.
Along with many other provisions, it limited all future battleships to a standard displacement of 35, long tons and a maximum gun caliber of 16 inches. It agreed that the five countries would not construct more capital ships for ten years and would not replace any ship that survived the treaty until it was at least twenty years old. In the s, the Japanese government began a shift towards ultranationalist militancy; this movement called for the expansion of the Japanese Empire to include much of the Pacific Ocean and Southeast Asia.
The maintenance of such an empire—spanning 3, miles from China to Midway Island—required a sizable fleet capable of sustained control of territory. Although all of Japan's battleships built prior to the Yamato class had been completed before —as the Washington Treaty had prevented any more from being completed—all had been either reconstructed or modernized, or both, in the s; this modernization included, among other things, additional speed and firepower, which the Japanese intended to use to conquer and defend their aspired-to empire.
When Japan withdrew from the League of Nations in over the Mukden Incident , it renounced all treaty obligations. Japan would no longer design battleships within the treaty limitations and was free to build warships larger than those of the other major maritime powers. Japan's intention to acquire resource-producing colonies in the Pacific and Southeast Asia would lead to confrontation with the United States, thus the U. The U.
Furthermore, several leading members of the United States Congress had pledged "to outbuild Japan three to one in a naval race. Each of these battleships would be capable of engaging multiple enemy capital ships eliminating the need to expend as much industrial effort as the U.
Preliminary studies for a new class of battleships began after Japan's departure from the League of Nations and its renunciation of the Washington and London naval treaties. These early plans varied in armament, propulsion and armor. Main batteries fluctuated between mm and mm guns, while the secondary armaments were composed of differing numbers of mm, mm, 25 mm guns. Propulsion in most of the designs was a hybrid diesel-turbine combination, though one relied on diesel and another planned for only turbines. Endurance in the designs had, at 18 kn, a low of 6, nmi in design AJ2 to a high of 9, nmi in designs AA and AB2.
Armor varied between providing protection from the fire of mm guns to enough protection against mm guns. After these had been reviewed, two of the original twenty-four were finalized as possibilities, AF3 and AF4. Differing in their range, they were used in the formation of the final preliminary study, finished on 20 July Tweaks to that design resulted in the definitive design of March , put forth by Rear-Admiral Fukuda Keiji; the diesels were removed from the. Iowa-class battleship The Iowa class was a class of six fast battleships ordered by the United States Navy in and Four vessels, New Jersey and Wisconsin , were completed; the four Iowa-class ships were the last battleships commissioned in the US Navy.
All older US battleships were decommissioned by and stricken from the Naval Vessel Registry by Between the mids and the early s, the Iowa-class battleships fought in four major US wars. All four were reactivated and modernized at the direction of Congress in , armed with missiles during the s, as part of the ship Navy initiative.
Costly to maintain, the battleships were decommissioned during the post-Cold War draw down in the early s.
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All four were removed from the Naval Vessel Register, but the United States Congress compelled the Navy to reinstate two of them on the grounds that existing NGFS would be inadequate for amphibious operations; this resulted in a lengthy debate over. All four ships were stricken from the Naval Vessel Register and released for donation to non-profit organizations.
With the transfer of Iowa in , all four are part of non-profit maritime museums across the US; the vessels that became the Iowa-class battleships were born from the US Navy's War Plan Orange , a Pacific war plan against Japan. War planners anticipated that the US fleet would engage and advance in the Central Pacific, with a long line of communication and logistics that would be vulnerable to high-speed Japanese cruisers.
As a result, the US Navy envisioned a fast detachment of the battle line that could bring the Japanese fleet into battle. During the development process of the preceding North Carolina-class and South Dakota-class battleships , designs that could achieve over 30 knots in order to counter the threat of fast "big gun" ships were considered. At the same time, a special strike force consisting of fast battleships operating alongside carriers and destroyers was being envisaged; this concept evolved into the Fast Carrier Task Force, though the carriers were believed to be subordinate to the battleship.
Another factor was the "escalator clause" of the Second London Naval Treaty , which reverted the gun caliber limit from 14 inches to 16 inches. Japan had refused to sign the treaty and in particular refused to accept the inch gun caliber limit or the ratio of warship tonnage limits for Britain, United States , Japan respectively. This resulted in the three treaty powers, the United States and France , invoking the escalator clause after April Circulation of intelligence evidence in November of Japanese capital ships violating naval treaties caused the treaty powers to expand the escalator clause in June , which amended the standard displacement limit of battleships from 35, long tons to 45, long tons.
Work on what would become the Iowa-class battleship began on the first studies in early , at the direction of Admiral Thomas C.