No. 201 - Stalingrad
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The last concert of the Berlin Philharmonic took place on April 12, Kershaw: And the Soviet offensive on the German capital began four days later. Kershaw: Yes, they won When I read that, I was so shocked that I thought the date might be wrong. But it was correct. Kershaw: The normality of routine, even if it's only a phony normality, is probably essential to the functioning of human order. You go to your workplace to check your files, even if the work you do is completely useless. And when your office no longer exists, because it was bombed, you simply set yourself up somewhere else.
Kershaw: It's true that this wouldn't have been possible without a well-trained civil service. The exemplary bureaucracy was the backbone of the regime. Even the postal service was kept more or less intact.
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When the rail network had been destroyed, the Reich postal minister issued the directive that motorcycles were to be used instead of trains. When there was a shortage of gasoline for the motorcycles, they switched to bicycles. In the end, they walked across the mountains with a rucksack on their backs. It's bizarre to imagine, but it worked. Related Topics. Discuss this issue with other readers! Show all comments Page 1. I can't believe the holocaust and unspeakable atrocities committed by the Nazis weren't even discussed in this conversation as another significant reason the regime continued fighting way beyond the point where defeat was certain?
Those responsible had to know there was no way the world was going to negotiate a surrender and then let those perpetrators off the hook once the true scale and scope were discovered.
I would think this was a fairly obvious factor why so many Germans fought so desperately until their country was entirely overrun. Two absolutely critical factors behind Germany's decision to fight to the bitter end were not mentioned in this interview: 1 Roosevelt's pronouncement that the Allies would accept nothing less than unconditional surrendur [ Two absolutely critical factors behind Germany's decision to fight to the bitter end were not mentioned in this interview: 1 Roosevelt's pronouncement that the Allies would accept nothing less than unconditional surrendur subsequently made policy by the Allies , gave Wehrmacht and Nazi leaders virtually no realistic opportunity to negotiate a peace settlement, and left the German people with little option except to fight on; 2 Germany's conduct of the war, particularly in the east, left little reason to believe that surrendur would spare Germany the cruelties of Soviet retribution.
Your point of view is un-realistic and ignorant. Zitat von darwin67 I can't believe the holocaust and unspeakable atrocities committed by the Nazis weren't even discussed in this conversation as another significant reason the regime continued fighting way beyond the point where defeat was certain?
He thought that this attack could work if the 6th Army was supplied through the air. Adolf Hitler had said on 30 September that the German army would never leave the city. At a meeting shortly after the Soviets formed a ring around the Germans, the German army chiefs wanted to try to escape to the west of the Don. Hitler thought that the Luftwaffe could supply the 6th Army with an "air bridge". This would allow the Germans in the city to fight while a new force was assembled.
A similar plan had been used a year earlier at the Demyansk Pocket. The director of Luftflotte 4, Wolfram von Richthofen , tried to get this decision stopped. The forces under 6th Army were almost twice as large as a regular German army unit, plus there was also a corps of the 4th Panzer Army trapped in the city. The maximum To add to the limited number of Junkers Ju 52 planes the Germans used other planes like the Heinkel He General Richthofen told Manstein on 27 November that the Luftwaffe could not supply tons a day by air.
Manstein now saw the problems of a supply by air. The next day he made a report which said that the supply by air would be impossible. He said the Sixth Army should try to escape. He said that giving up Stalingrad would be a difficult loss, but that it would keep the Sixth Army intact. In the early parts of the operation, more fuel was shipped than food and ammunition because the Germans thought they could escape from the city. Transport airplanes also flew out sick or wounded men from the city.
The German attack did not reach the 6th Army. The air supply operation continued. The 6th Army slowly starved.
(PDF) Stalingrad-The Fateful Siege | Ariel Raphaeli - farposttammisp.tk
Some Junkers Ju 52s were destroyed. Soviet forces grouped together around Stalingrad. Violent fighting to attack the Germans began. Operation Winter Storm Operation Wintergewitter , the German attempt to rescue the trapped army from the south, was at first successful. Some German officers asked Paulus go against Hitler's orders and try to escape out of the Stalingrad. Paulus refused.
On 23 December, Manstein's forces had to defend themselves from new Soviet attacks.
It attempted to make a hole through the Axis army mainly Italians on the Don and capture Rostov. The Germans set up a defence of small units. The German attempt to break through to Stalingrad was stopped and Army Group A was told to come back from the Caucasus. The 6th Army could no longer hope to escape. The 6th Army did not have enough fuel. As well, the German soldiers have found it very hard to break through the Soviet lines on foot in the cold winter conditions.
The Germans retreated from the suburbs of Stalingrad to the city itself. The Germans were now not only starving, but running out of ammunition. They continued to fight because they thought the Soviets would execute any Germans who surrendered. A Soviet group Major Aleksandr Smyslov, Captain Nikolay Dyatlenko and a trumpeter carried an offer to Paulus: if he surrendered within 24 hours, he would receive a guarantee of safety for all prisoners, medical care for the sick and wounded, prisoners allowed to keep their personal belongings, food rations, and getting sent to any country they wanted ti after the war.
Paulus was ordered not to surrender by Hitler, so he did not respond. On 30 January , the 10th anniversary of Hitler coming to power, Goebbels said "The heroic struggle of our soldiers on the Volga should be a warning for everybody Since no German Field Marshal had ever been taken prisoner, Hitler assumed that Paulus would fight on or kill himself. The next day, the southern group in Stalingrad was defeated by the Soviets. Soviet forces reached the entrance to the German headquarters. General Schmidt surrendered the headquarters.
Paulus said he had not surrendered and refused to order the remaining German forces to surrender. Four Soviet armies attacked the remaining northern group. On 2 February, General Strecker surrendered. Around 91, tired, ill, wounded, and starving prisoners were taken, including 3, Romanians the survivors of the 20th Infantry Division, 1st Cavalry Division and "Col. Voicu" Detachment.
Hitler was angry and said that Paulus could have killed himself, but instead "he prefers to go to Moscow. The German public was not officially told of the loss until the end of January , though positive media reports had stopped in the weeks before the announcement. It was a major defeat where German losses were almost equal to those of the Soviets. Prior losses of the Soviet Union were generally three times as high as the German ones. Out of the nearly , German prisoners captured in Stalingrad, only about 6, ever returned. They were sent to prisoner camps and later to labour camps all over the Soviet Union.
Some 35, were eventually sent on transports, of which 17, did not survive. Some were kept in the city to help rebuild.
О музее-заповеднике «Сталинградская битва»
Some senior officers were taken to Moscow and used for propaganda purposes. Some of them joined the National Committee for a Free Germany. Some, including Paulus, signed anti-Hitler statements that were broadcast to German troops. Paulus testified for the prosecution during the Nuremberg Trials.
It was not until that the last of the , survivors were repatriated to West Germany. During the defence of Stalingrad, the Red Army used six armies 8th , 28th , 51st , 57th , 62nd and 64th Armies in and around the city. An additional nine armies in the final attack on the Germans. Counting how many people were killed and wounded in the battle of Stalingrad is hard.
One way is to only count the fighting within the city and suburbs. Another way of counting is to count all the fighting on the southern part of the Soviet-German front from the spring of to the winter of Different scholars have made different estimates depending on how widely you consider the battle.
The Axis had from , to , casualties killed, wounded, captured among all branches of the German armed forces and its allies  :p.