Self-healing Control Technology for Distribution Networks
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Automation of Electric Power Systems, , 36 4 : — in Chinese. Distribution automation construction in smart grid [J]. Automation of Electric Power Systems, , 36 18 : 33—36 in Chinese. A state estimation and fault processing method based on big data analysis of smart distribution network [J]. Power System Technology, , 40 3 : — in Chinese. Smart distribution grid and distribution automation [J]. Automation of Electric Power Systems, , 33 17 : 38—41 in Chinese. Self-healing and its benchmarking of smart distribution grid [J]. Power System Protection and Control, , 38 22 : — in Chinese.
Demand side management in smart grid using heuristic optimization [J]. Electric Power Automation Equipment, , 35 11 : 20—24 in Chinese. Distribution network restoration and black start based on distributed generators [J]. Transactions of China Electrotechnical Society, , 30 21 : 67—75 in Chinese. Article Article Journal. Method for the protection of key load in distribution network with distributed power supply[J.
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Distributed generation Development and challenge of microgrid and smart distribution network[J]. Automation of electric power system,,34 2 Chengshan Wang , Li Peng. Self - healing function of smart distribution network and evaluation index [ J ]. Bingyin Xu , Tianyou Li.
Self-Healing Control to improve reliability for the Smart Grid Distribution System
Self-healing function of smart distribution network and evaluation index[J]. Power system protection and control,,38 22 The relatively low utilisation of these peaking generators commonly, gas turbines were used due to their relatively lower capital cost and faster start-up times , together with the necessary redundancy in the electricity grid, resulted in high costs to the electricity companies, which were passed on in the form of increased tariffs.
In the 21st century, some developing countries like China, India, and Brazil were seen as pioneers of smart grid deployment. Since the early 21st century, opportunities to take advantage of improvements in electronic communication technology to resolve the limitations and costs of the electrical grid have become apparent. Technological limitations on metering no longer force peak power prices to be averaged out and passed on to all consumers equally.
In parallel, growing concerns over environmental damage from fossil-fired power stations has led to a desire to use large amounts of renewable energy.
Dominant forms such as wind power and solar power are highly variable, and so the need for more sophisticated control systems became apparent, to facilitate the connection of sources to the otherwise highly controllable grid. The rapidly falling costs point to a major change from the centralised grid topology to one that is highly distributed, with power being both generated and consumed right at the limits of the grid.
Finally, growing concern over terrorist attack in some countries has led to calls for a more robust energy grid that is less dependent on centralised power stations that were perceived to be potential attack targets. Bush in December Title XIII of this bill provides a description, with ten characteristics, that can be considered a definition for Smart Grid, as follows:.
A smart grid employs innovative products and services together with intelligent monitoring, control, communication, and self-healing technologies in order to:. A common element to most definitions is the application of digital processing and communications to the power grid, making data flow and information management central to the smart grid.
Various capabilities result from the deeply integrated use of digital technology with power grids. Integration of the new grid information is one of the key issues in the design of smart grids. Electric utilities now find themselves making three classes of transformations: improvement of infrastructure, called the strong grid in China; addition of the digital layer, which is the essence of the smart grid ; and business process transformation, necessary to capitalize on the investments in smart technology.
Much of the work that has been going on in electric grid modernization, especially substation and distribution automation, is now included in the general concept of the smart grid. Smart grid technologies emerged from earlier attempts at using electronic control, metering, and monitoring. In the s, automatic meter reading was used for monitoring loads from large customers, and evolved into the Advanced Metering Infrastructure of the s, whose meters could store how electricity was used at different times of the day. Early forms of such demand side management technologies were dynamic demand aware devices that passively sensed the load on the grid by monitoring changes in the power supply frequency.
Devices such as industrial and domestic air conditioners, refrigerators and heaters adjusted their duty cycle to avoid activation during times the grid was suffering a peak condition. Beginning in , Italy's Telegestore Project was the first to network large numbers 27 million of homes using smart meters connected via low bandwidth power line communication. Monitoring and synchronization of wide area networks were revolutionized in the early s when the Bonneville Power Administration expanded its smart grid research with prototype sensors that are capable of very rapid analysis of anomalies in electricity quality over very large geographic areas.
The earliest deployments of smart grids include the Italian system Telegestore , the mesh network of Austin, Texas since , and the smart grid in Boulder, Colorado See Deployments and attempted deployments below. The smart grid represents the full suite of current and proposed responses to the challenges of electricity supply.
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Because of the diverse range of factors there are numerous competing taxonomies and no agreement on a universal definition. Nevertheless, one possible categorization is given here. The smart grid makes use of technologies such as state estimation,  that improve fault detection and allow self-healing of the network without the intervention of technicians. This will ensure more reliable supply of electricity, and reduced vulnerability to natural disasters or attack. Although multiple routes are touted as a feature of the smart grid, the old grid also featured multiple routes.
Initial power lines in the grid were built using a radial model, later connectivity was guaranteed via multiple routes, referred to as a network structure. However, this created a new problem: if the current flow or related effects across the network exceed the limits of any particular network element, it could fail, and the current would be shunted to other network elements, which eventually may fail also, causing a domino effect.
See power outage. A technique to prevent this is load shedding by rolling blackout or voltage reduction brownout.
The economic impact of improved grid reliability and resilience is the subject of a number of studies and can be calculated using a US DOE funded methodology for US locations using at least one calculation tool. Classic grids were designed for one-way flow of electricity, but if a local sub-network generates more power than it is consuming, the reverse flow can raise safety and reliability issues.
The overall effect is less redundancy in transmission and distribution lines, and greater utilization of generators, leading to lower power prices. The total load connected to the power grid can vary significantly over time. Although the total load is the sum of many individual choices of the clients, the overall load is not necessarily stable or slow varying. For example, if a popular television program starts, millions of televisions will start to draw current instantly.
Traditionally, to respond to a rapid increase in power consumption, faster than the start-up time of a large generator, some spare generators are put on a dissipative standby mode [ citation needed ]. A smart grid may warn all individual television sets, or another larger customer, to reduce the load temporarily  to allow time to start up a larger generator or continuously in the case of limited resources.
Using mathematical prediction algorithms it is possible to predict how many standby generators need to be used, to reach a certain failure rate. In the traditional grid, the failure rate can only be reduced at the cost of more standby generators.
In a smart grid, the load reduction by even a small portion of the clients may eliminate the problem. While traditionally load balancing strategies have been designed to change consumers' consumption patterns to make demand more uniform, developments in energy storage and individual renewable energy generation have provided opportunities to devise balanced power grids without affecting consumers' behavior. Typically, storing energy during off-peak times eases high demand supply during peak hours. Dynamic game-theoretic frameworks have proved particularly efficient at storage scheduling by optimizing energy cost using their Nash equilibrium.
To reduce demand during the high cost peak usage periods, communications and metering technologies inform smart devices in the home and business when energy demand is high and track how much electricity is used and when it is used.
It also gives utility companies the ability to reduce consumption by communicating to devices directly in order to prevent system overloads. Examples would be a utility reducing the usage of a group of electric vehicle charging stations or shifting temperature set points of air conditioners in a city. When businesses and consumers see a direct economic benefit of using energy at off-peak times, the theory is that they will include energy cost of operation into their consumer device and building construction decisions and hence become more energy efficient.
See Time of day metering and demand response.
The improved flexibility of the smart grid permits greater penetration of highly variable renewable energy sources such as solar power and wind power , even without the addition of energy storage. Current network infrastructure is not built to allow for many distributed feed-in points, and typically even if some feed-in is allowed at the local distribution level, the transmission-level infrastructure cannot accommodate it.
Rapid fluctuations in distributed generation, such as due to cloudy or gusty weather, present significant challenges to power engineers who need to ensure stable power levels through varying the output of the more controllable generators such as gas turbines and hydroelectric generators. Smart grid technology is a necessary condition for very large amounts of renewable electricity on the grid for this reason. The smart grid allows for systematic communication between suppliers their energy price and consumers their willingness-to-pay , and permits both the suppliers and the consumers to be more flexible and sophisticated in their operational strategies.
Only the critical loads will need to pay the peak energy prices, and consumers will be able to be more strategic in when they use energy. Generators with greater flexibility will be able to sell energy strategically for maximum profit, whereas inflexible generators such as base-load steam turbines and wind turbines will receive a varying tariff based on the level of demand and the status of the other generators currently operating.
The overall effect is a signal that awards energy efficiency, and energy consumption that is sensitive to the time-varying limitations of the supply.
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At the domestic level, appliances with a degree of energy storage or thermal mass such as refrigerators, heat banks, and heat pumps will be well placed to 'play' the market and seek to minimise energy cost by adapting demand to the lower-cost energy support periods. This is an extension of the dual-tariff energy pricing mentioned above.
Demand response support allows generators and loads to interact in an automated fashion in real time, coordinating demand to flatten spikes. Eliminating the fraction of demand that occurs in these spikes eliminates the cost of adding reserve generators, cuts wear and tear and extends the life of equipment, and allows users to cut their energy bills by telling low priority devices to use energy only when it is cheapest.
Currently, power grid systems have varying degrees of communication within control systems for their high-value assets, such as in generating plants, transmission lines, substations and major energy users. In general information flows one way, from the users and the loads they control back to the utilities. The utilities attempt to meet the demand and succeed or fail to varying degrees brownouts, rolling blackout, uncontrolled blackout. The total amount of power demand by the users can have a very wide probability distribution which requires spare generating plants in standby mode to respond to the rapidly changing power usage.
Demand response can be provided by commercial, residential loads, and industrial loads. Latency of the data flow is a major concern, with some early smart meter architectures allowing actually as long as 24 hours delay in receiving the data, preventing any possible reaction by either supplying or demanding devices. As with other industries, use of robust two-way communications, advanced sensors, and distributed computing technology will improve the efficiency, reliability and safety of power delivery and use.
It also opens up the potential for entirely new services or improvements on existing ones, such as fire monitoring and alarms that can shut off power, make phone calls to emergency services, etc. The amount of data required to perform monitoring and switching one's appliances off automatically is very small compared with that already reaching even remote homes to support voice, security, Internet and TV services.
Modeling of intelligent distribution network self-healing control state transition based on FSM
Many smart grid bandwidth upgrades are paid for by over-provisioning to also support consumer services, and subsidizing the communications with energy-related services or subsidizing the energy-related services, such as higher rates during peak hours, with communications. This is particularly true where governments run both sets of services as a public monopoly.
Because power and communications companies are generally separate commercial enterprises in North America and Europe, it has required considerable government and large-vendor effort to encourage various enterprises to cooperate. Some, like Cisco , see opportunity in providing devices to consumers very similar to those they have long been providing to industry.