Supermagnets, Hard Magnetic Materials

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On a cost-per-pound basis neodymium magnets may seem very costly. However, on a cost per BHmax basis, they are not so costly. Using a more powerful magnet, enables the entire device that the magnet goes into to be miniaturized. This yields cost savings that favor more powerful magnet materials. Both of these associations are now a part of the International Magnetics Association. Some of the publications and standards produced by these organizations are reproduced here for your convenience.

If stored away from factors that adversely affect the magnet such as power lines, other magnets, high temperatures etc. Shock and vibration do not affect modern magnet materials , unless sufficient to physically damage the material. Modern magnet materials do lose a very small fraction of their magnetism over time. These are the strongest magnets. They don't need a metal core at all, but are made of coils of wire made from special metal alloys which become superconductors when cooled to very low temperatures.

Once a magnet is fully magnetized, it's "saturated" and cannot be made any stronger.

Neodymium magnet - Wikipedia

In that sense, magnets are like buckets of water: once they are full, they can't get any "fuller". Most commonly, Gaussmeters, magnetometers, or pull-testers are used to measure the strength of a magnet. Gaussmeters measure the strength in Gauss; Magnetometers measure in Gauss or arbitrary units making it easy to compare one magnet to another ; pull-testers measure pull in pounds, kilograms, or other force units. Helmholtz Coils, search coils and permeameters are also used to make sophisticated measurements of magnets. Special Gaussmeters can cost up to several thousands of dollars.

The surface field strength of the earth is about 0. A range from 0. What is the governing equation for field strength relative to distance? Magnetic poles are the surfaces from which the invisible lines of magnetic flux emanate and connect on return to the magnet. Here are the three important properties that characterize magnets for some of the most common magnet materials used today:.

SOFT AND HARD MAGNETIC MATERIAL - EASY EXPLANATION -

How can I use this information? Given a magnet size, you can estimate how much magnetic flux different materials will project at a given distance. You can also use this information to compare one material to another. Example: How much more flux will a neodymium grade 35 magnet project as compared to a ceramic grade 5 of the same dimension at a given distance? This means that the neo grade 35 will project 3. Given the flux required at some fixed distance from the magnet, you can use this information to estimate what magnet volume will be required for different magnet materials.

Example: What volume of ceramic-5 magnets would give the same flux as a neodymium grade magnet at a given distance? This means that the volume of the ceramic-5 magnets would have to be 9. What are the maximum recommended operating temperatures for different magnet materials? The maximum temperature at which a magnet will be effective depends greatly on the permeance coefficient, or "Pc" of the material. The Pc is a function of the magnetic circuit in which the magnet operates. The higher the Pc the more "closed" the circuit , the higher temperature at which the magnet can operate without becoming severely demagnetized.

Shown here are approximate maximum operating temperatures for the various classes of magnet material. At temperatures, close to those listed below, special attention may be needed in order to ensure that the magnet will not become demagnetized. What is maximum temperature a magnet can operate at not a set value?

Bibliographic Information

Magnets function at different levels of efficiency given different circuits that they operate in. The more closed the circuit the magnet is operating in, the more stable it is, and the less effect temperature will have on it.

Can magnets be machined? Yes, magnets can be machined.

Permanent magnets and hard magnetic materials

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Synopsis The book you are now holding represents the final step in a long process for the editors and organizers of the Advanced Study Institute on hard magnetic materials. Buy New Learn more about this copy. Other Popular Editions of the Same Title. Search for all books with this author and title.

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New Hardcover Quantity Available: The main advantage they have over conventional magnets is that their greater strength allows for smaller, lighter magnets to be used, ones that can do the same job but take up less space and require less material. Super magnets can be broken down into two categories. First, there is the neodymium magnet, which is made from an alloy of neodymium, iron, and boron to form the Nd2Fe14B tetragonal crystalline structure. It is typically used in the construction of head actuators in computer hard drives and has many electronic applications, such as electric motors, appliances, and magnetic resonance imaging MRI.

The second type of super magnet is the samarium-cobalt variety, an alloy of samarium and cobalt with the chemical formula of SmCo5. This second-strongest type of rare Earth magnet is also used in electronic motors, turbomachinery, and because of its high temperature range tolerance may also have many applications for space travel, such as cryogenics and heat resistant machinery.